Purpose: To introduce a rare case of patient with hyperlipidemic myeloma and ocular manifestation in the form of masquerade syndrome with acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and hyperviscous retinopathy.
Results: 55-year-old man with newly diagnosed hyperlipidemic myeloma and hyperviscous syndrome was acutely referred to our glaucoma outpatient clinic due to problems with his left eye: sudden pain, blurred vision, redness of the eye and IOP of 44 mm Hg. We excluded attack of angle closure glaucoma and found the presence of whitish material in the anterior chamber and blood obstructing the iridocorneal angle. Glaucoma therapy was initiated and lavage of the anterior chamber of the left eye with sampling of the aqueous humour for biochemical and cytological examination was performed. Identification of trace amount of cryoprotein in the samples of humour proved diagnosis of masquerade syndrome. Finding of the hyperviscous retinopathy and nonperfusion of wide peripheral areas of retina in both eyes was indicated to laser coagulation of these areas. The patient underwent in the meantime three times plasmapheresis, four cycles of biological therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation reaching complete remission of the myeloma. Local and systemic therapy led to significant clinical finding improvement on the anterior segment and fundus of both eyes.
Conclusions: Masquerade syndrome can be complicated by acute elevation of IOP. Diagnostic lavage of the anterior chamber, local therapy, systemic therapy and close interdisciplinary cooperation contributed to right diagnosis, IOP normalisation, ocular and general condition improvement.